Independent States

Last Update September 15, 2001



(Republica Argentina)

Regime :


Fernando de La Rúa Bruno - Chief of State

Born : in Córdoba on September 15, 1937

Education/profession : Studies in the "Liceo Militar General Paz" in the same province, where he received the Gold Medal. Graduated with a Law degree in Cordoba University at the age of 21, where hes also received¨ the Gold Medal. Later, he obtained a doctorate for his thesis about "Appeal to the Supreme Court¨ in Argentine Civil Law¨.

Party : UCR (Unión Civica Radical / Radical Civic Union)

Political career : Member of the Unión Cívica Radical since a student, at 26 he served in the council board of the Ministry of Home Affairs . He carried on his political career as a senator for the Federal Capital, a position to which he was elected on April 15, 1973. He assumed his term as a legislator in the Upper House until the military coup which overthrew the constitutionnal government in 1976. In 1983 he ran the primaries for President of the Nation then he ran for local electiosn and led the senators' list a position he wa elected to with 60% of the votes. On May 14,1989, he won for the third time the election as a Natinal Senator then removed from his bench because of an agreement between the minorities in the Assembly. As a winner, twice on his party lists in 1991, he was elected Chairman of the Capital Committee of the UCR then he ran as a candidate to the National Parliament and was elected as a national MP in the general elections. National MP on a Unión Cívica Radical list untilhis election as National senator (term 1992-2001)with over 50% of the votes.On June 30,1996 he was elected as first head of governement of Buenos Aires City, with 40% of the ballot.On October 24,1999 he was elected President of the Nation with 48% of the votes.

(President since 10 December 1999)

The president is both the chief of State and head of the Government.

President and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms ; election last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004)


- Vice President

Chrystian Gabriel Colombo - Prime Minister

Born : 11 de noviembre de 1952, Zapala

Education/Profession : Primary school : Colegio normal de Zapala. Secundary school : Liceo Militar General San Martín. Then, Universidad Católica Argentina, BSc in Economícs. 1974-76 : Ecotec Consultores - Consultant. 1976-83 : Banco Río de la Plata S.A. - Manager. 1983-85 : Banco Nacional de Desarrollo - Executive Manager. 1985-87 : Banco Nacional de Desarrollo - Chairman. 1988-91 : Firm Consultant .1991-92: Bonival Bursátil Soc. de Bolsa S.A. - Manager. 1992-94 : Río Valores Sociedad de Bolsa S.A. - Manager. Banco Río de la Plata S.A. - Manager Mercado de Capitales. 1994-97 : Bonival Bursátil Soc. de Bolsa S.A. - Vice-chairman. 1999-2000 : Banco de la Nación Argentina -Chairman

Party : Independent

Political career : October 2000 Prime Minister.

(Cabinet Chief since October 06, 2000)

Links :



(Republica de Bolivia)

Regime :


Jorge Quiroga Ramírez - Chief of State

Born : on May 5, 1963, in Cochabamba

Education/Profession : He completed his higher studies in the U.S, in the University of Texas A&M- College Station,where he graduated with honors (Summa Cum Laude) in Industrial Engineering. He took part in the IBM MercadeoTraining program and received from Saint Edward University in Austin,Texas, a Master's degree in Business Administration. He led a project for the design and establishment of a compilation system for the State.

Party : ADN (Alianza Democrática Nacionalista / Nationalist Democratic Alliance)

Political career : Served as Under-secretary for Public Investment and International Cooperation in the Ministry for Planning and was responsible with the yearly preparation of the Advisory Group in París for Bolivia. When he was 30 he held the position of Finance Minister under Jaime Paz Zamora's government. He served as an alternate Governor to the World Bank, Fonplata, Financial Cooperation of Investments and head of the Andine Corporation of Development. He also served as a National Secretary on Social Policy and main negociator for the reduction of external bilateral debt with the U.S. He was responsible with the preparation of the budget and enforcement of the Public Investment program at Cartagena II Summit. In the political party he is acting, Acción Democrática Nacionalista (ADN) (Nationalist Democratic Action),he was leader of the 1993 election campaign and is currently deputy leader of the political organization.

(President since 7 August 2001)

OBS : President Banzer resigned in 2001 and was succeeded by vice-president Quiroga.

The president is both the chief of State and head of the Government.

President and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms ; election last held 1 June 1997 (next to be held June 2002)


- Vice President

Links :



(Republica Federativa do Brasil)

Regime :

Federal republic

Fernando Henrique Cardoso - Chief of State

Born : June 18, 1931 in Rio de Janeiro

Education/Profession : Taught university course while in exile in Chile and France, 1964-68; Founded Center for Analysis and Research, 1968 ; Continued teaching abroad at Stanford University, University of Cambridge and others ; Founded Brazilian Center of Analysis and Planning, 1981.

Party : PSDB (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileiro / Party of the Brazil Social-Democracy)

Political career : Elected as Senator of São Paulo state on a MDB's ticket -Brazilian Democratic Movement- in 1978, reelected on a PMDB's ticcket Brazilian Democratic Movement Party in 1986. Founder of the Party for Brazilian Social Democracy (PSDB) in 1988, he was leader of the party at the Senate until October 1992. He was entrusted successiveley with the portfolio of the Foreign Affairs (October 1992 to May 1993), of Finance (May 1993 to March 1994)under President Itamar Franco's government .

(President since 1st January 1995)

The president is both the chief of State and head of the Government.

President and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms ; election last held 4 October 1998 - CARDOSO reelected (next to be held NA October 2002)

Marco Antônio de Oliveira Maciel - Vice-President

Born : in Recife in 21 July 1940

Education/Profession : Lawyer, Professor of International and Public Law in the Catholic University of Pernambuco.

Party : PFL (Partido da Frente Liberal / Party of the Liberal Front)

Political career : Chairman of the House of Deputies, between 1977 and 1979, Governor of the State of Pernambuco between 1979 and 1982 and he is currently Vice-President of the Republic.

(Vice-President since 1st January 1995)

Links :



(Republica de Chile)

Regime :


Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar - Chief of State

Born : on March 2, 1938

Education/Profession : Educated in the Liceo Manuel de Salas since 1949, and at the Instituto Nacional,both in the capital. In 1955 he entered the Law School of the University of Chile where he was a head of a student organization, received a BL.L degree in 1960, post-graduate studies in the American University of Duke,where he obtained a PhD from the Departament of Economics in 1966. He served intermittently as a professor of economics in the University of Santiago until 1972 . Headmaster of the School for Political Science and Administración (1967-1969), general secretary of the University (1969-1971) and head of the Institute of Economics (1971-1972). From 1974 to 1975 he was a guest professor to the chair William R. Keenan for LatinAmerican Studies in the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, in 1976 he served as a consultant to the University of the United Nations, between 1975 and 1978 he supervised a UNESCO post-graduate program in Social Sciences in Buenos Aires and until 1979, he served as executive of the LatinAmerican Council of Social Sciences.

Party : PPD (Partido por la Democracia / Party for Democracy, social-liberal)

Political career : He first joined the Radical Party, then was an active member of the Socialist Party (PS), and supported its leader Salvador Allende, elected president of the Republic in 1970. He assumed a diplomatic position in Allende's government as the Chilian representative in the XXVI general Assembly of the U.N, in 1971, in the IIId Trade and Development Conference of the same organization (CNUCED), in 1972. In 1982 he joined the Executive Committee of the PS. From 1983 to 1984 he chaired the Alianza Democrática which gathered parties in opposition to dictatorship and in 1987 he led the Committee for the Left for Free Elections (CIEL) and was co- founder of the Party for Democracy(PPD), which emerged as an open political space to socialist and centrist sections and stood as a mark for the then illegal PS activities.On May 30, 1999, he won the CPPD primaries with 71.3% of the votes ahead of Andrés Zaldívar, and appearing as the first presidential candidate of the PS since 1973. In the first round of elections Lagos slightly won overa Lavín with 48% of the votes and subsequently obtained 51,3% in the second and final round on Janurary 16, 2000.

(President since 11 March 2000)

The president is both the chief of State and head of the Government.

President elected by popular vote for a six-year term ; election last held 12 December 1999 and 16 january 2000 (next to be held NA December 2005)

Links :



(Republica de Colombia)

Regime :

Republic (executive branch dominates government structure)

Andrés Pastrana Arango - Chief of State

Born in Santafé de Bogotá, on August 17, 1954

Education/Profession : Graduated from San Carlos College in Bogotá, and afterwards attended the Colegio Mayor De Nuestra Sennora Del Rosário, also in Bogotá where he obtained an M.A, then he post-graduated in Public Law. Then he carried on in the Center of International Affairs in Harvard University.

Party : PSC (Partido Social Conservador / Social Conservative Party)

Carrière Politique: Elected twice as Councellor and Chairman of Bogota Town Council , first Mayor of Bogota elected by a popular voteand a Senator of the Republic in 1991.As a leader of the Nueva Fuerza Democrática, a supra-partisan movement he founded in 1991, he successfully ran for the senate of the Republic the same year. The administration office as Mayor of Bogota and the position of Senator of the Republic urged him to run for president in 1994.During the May 31,1998 elections Pastrana was, with 34,3% of the ballot, the second candidate gathering the most of the votes,although he was only 10 points behind the liberal Horacio Serpa Uribe. In 21st of June second round Pastrana received the support from the majority of the voters at odds about the May third candidate, Noemí Sanín, former Foreign Minister and thus won the victory with 50,9%.

(President since 7 August 1998)

The president is both the chief of State and head of the Government.

President elected by popular vote for a four-year term ; election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)

Gustavo Bell Lemus - Vice-President

Born : in Barranquilla on February 1, 1957

Education/Profession : Degree from Javeriana University of Bogotá- in Law and Social Siences and Economics. Post-graduation in Public and Economical Law in Los Andes University. He served a s a senior professorof Law social development and political study in the Northern University. He taught history, at a masters' level, in the University of the Atlantic and was a guest professor to the Universities of Medellín, Cartagena and Los Andes.

Political career : Minister of National Defense

(Vice-President since 7 August 1998)

Also : Minister of National Defense

Vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents by newly elected presidents ; election last held 31 May and 21 june 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002)

Links :



(Republica del Ecuador)

Regime :


Dr.Gustavo Noboa Bejarano - Chief of State

Born : in Guayaquil el 21 de August, 1937

Education/Profession : BSc in Political and Social Sciences since 1965, doctor in Law from the Catholic University of Guayaquil, Faculty of Law, Social and Political Sciences and subsequently he taught Cvil and municipal Law the following year which he had taught since 1962 in schools. He was a deputy Dean of this Faculty between 1968 and 1969 and Dean between 1969 and 1972 and 1978-1980, before he was appointed Chancellor of the University in 1986-1991 and 1991-1996. He also served as chancellor of Blue Hill College and vice chairman, in 1994, of the Esquel Foundation , in Ecuador.

Party : DP (Democracia Popular / People's Democracy)

Political career : Governor of the del Guayas Province under Doctor Oswaldo Hurtado Larrea's Constitutional Government, over a period from March 1983 to August 1984. President of the Civil Defense Assembly in the del Guayas Province (during the same period). Chairman of the traffic Comission of del Guayas (same period). Constitutional Vice President of the Republic of Ecuador, from August 10 , 1998 to January 22, 2000. Constitutional President of the Republic of Ecuador since January 22, 2000.

(President since 22 January 2000)

The president is both the chief of State and head of the Government.

President and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms ; election last held 31 May 1998 ; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

Eng.Pedro Pinto Rubianes

Born : in Quito, 1931

Education/Profession : Secondary studies in the colegio San Gabriel then, attended university in Germany where he obtained an industrial engineer degree from the university of Reutlingen. Back in Quito he studied Economícs at the Central University, and subsequently got a post-graduate scholarship in Economic Development to the Vanderbilt University, in Nashville, USA.

Party : DP (Democracia Popular / People's Democracy)

Political career : Mayor of Guayaquil. Finance Minister in doctor Osvaldo Hurtado's government.

(Vice President since 22 January 2000)

Links :



(Co-operative Republic of Guyana)

Regime :   


Bharrat Jagdeo - Chief of State

Born : on January 23, 1964 at Unity Village, East Coast Demerara

Education/Profession : Primary School in Unity Village, and then proceeded to the Mahaica Multilateral School for his secondary school education from 1976 to 1983 where he was successful in the Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) and the General Certificate of Education (Advanced Level) examinations.

Party : PPP (People's Progressive Party)

Political career : Served as finance minister and has held a number of posts in local and international financial bodies, including director of the National Bank of Industry and Commerce and governor of the International Monetary Fund.

(President since 11 August 1999)

President elected by the majority party in the National Assembly after legislative elections, which must be held within five years ; legislative elections last held 19 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)

Samuel Archibald Anthony Hinds - Head of the Government

Born : on December 27, 1943 in Alexander Village, Greater Georgetown

Education/Profession : B.Sc. Chemical Engineering Degree from the University of New Brunswick in Canada in 1967. Worked as a divisional superintendent for the Bauxite Company in Linden, Guyana. From 1967 to 1975, he was honorary secretary of the McKenzie branch of the Guyana Association of Professional Engineers. From 1973 to 1976, he was a member of the Science and Industry Committee of the National Science Research Council. Also, he was chairperson of the Guyanese Action for Reform and Democracy.

Party : PPP (People's Progressive Party)

Political career : October 1992, appointed Prime Minister of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana.

(Prime Minister since 11 August 1997 - 3rd time)

Prime minister appointed by the president.

Links :




(Republica del Paraguay)

Regime :


Dr.Luis Ángel González Macchi - Chief of State

Born : in Asunción on December 13, 1947}

Education/Profession : Primary school in the "República del Brasil" school ; High School in the Colegio "Sagrado Corazón de Jesús", Salesian ; Universitary Studies at the National University of Asunción -Law and Social Sciences-(Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción).

Party : ANR (Asociación Nacional Republicana/Partido Colorado / Republican National Alliance/Red Party)

Political career : Head, then Chairman of the National Service for Vocational Promotion [Servicio Nacional de Promoción Profesional (SNPP)], depending from the Ministry of Justice and Labour, and in the early 70s he sertved as an executive for various offical missions abroad such as the Cinterfor (Centro Interamericano de Investigación y Documentación sobre Formación Profesional en América Latina) (InterAmerican Center for Investigation and Documentation about Vocational Training in Latin America), the ILO International Labour Organization [Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT)]. Under Juan Carlos Wasmosy's presidency (1993-1998) he served as MP in the National House of Congress.

(President since 28 March 1999)

The president is both chief of State and head of the Government.

President and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms ; election last held 10 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2003)

note : President Luis GONZALEZ Macchi, formerly president of the Chamber of Senators, constitutionally succeeded President Raul CUBAS Grau, who resigned following the assassination of Vice President Luis Maria ARGANA ; the successor to ARGANA was appointed in an election held on Aug.13, 2000.

Dr.Julio César "Yoyito" Franco -  Vice-President

Born : in 1952

Education/Profession : Surgeon, graduated from the National University of Córdoba (Rca. Argentina). Post graduation course in Pediatrics in the Universitary hospital of Asunción (Paraguay).

Party : PLRA (Partido Liberal Radical Auténtico (Authentic Radical Liberal Party)

Political career : Senator. Franco of the Authentic Liberal Radical Party (PLRA) was sworn in on September 2 as Paraguay's vice president.

(Elected on August 13, 2000)

Note : The vice-president has been elected separately on Aug.13, 2000.

Links :




(Republica del Peru)

Regime :


Alejandro Toledo Manrique - Chief of State

Born : in 1946

Education/Profession : At 16, under the guidance of members of the Peace Corps, Toledo enrolled at the University of San Francisco on a one-year scholarship. He continued his education, obtaining a partial soccer scholarship and making up the difference, pumping gas. In addition to two masters degrees, he earned a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford, where he met his wife, Elaine Karp, a Belgian-born American anthropologist.

Political career : Toledo previously served as chief economic adviser to the president of the Central Bank and minister of labor under President Fernando Belaúnde. He also did a stint at the World Bank.

Party : PP (Peru Posible / Possible Peru)

(President since 28 Jul 2001)

The president is both chief of State and head of the Government.

The president is elected for a five year term by the people. Election last held 8 April and 3 June 2001 (next to be held NA May 2005)

Roberto Dañino - Head of the Government

Born : in Lima , on March 2,1951.

Education/Profession : Studies in the Pontificia Universidad Católica (1968-1973) and Harvard Law School (1974-1977).An Economist and a Lawyer, specialized in investment banking and international economic Law.

Party : Independent

Political career : In the early eighties he also held several senior positions in the Government of Peru, including Secretary General of the Ministry of Economy, Finance and Trade, President of the Foreign Investment and Technology Agency, and Chairman of the Foreign Public Debt Commission.

(Prime Minister since 28 July 2001)

Raúl Diez Canseco Terry - 1st Vice President

Born : in Lima, on January 23, 1948

Education/Profession : Studies at the colegio Inmaculada, and at the Marists' High School. He studied Economics at the University of the Pacífic, between 1967 and 1960.

Party : (Acción Popular / People's Action)

Political career : In 1985ha was Chairman of the Assembly of the Fund for Touristic Promotion (FOPTUR), executive manager of the Banco de Comercio, deputy minister for tourism and executive manager of the Corporación Peruana de Aviación comercial (CORPAC). In 1990 he was elected MP for Lima. In 1993, he ran for Mayor of Lima and in 1995 he ran for President. He always ran on an Acción Popular list.

Also : Minister of Industry, Tourism, Integration, and International Trade Negotiations

David Waisman - 2d Vice President

Born : On May 4 , 1937, in the city of Chiclayo (Lambayeque)

Education/Profession : He served as chairman of the Committee for Small Industry of the National Society of Industries of Perú, and a member of the Executive Board of the latter. He also served as national spokesman for the Coordination Board of the Corporation of Small and Micro Enterprises, founder -member of the COPEI and was reelected chairman for three consecutive years since 1997. He also served as manager of Industrial Gameda.

Party : PP (Peru Posible / Possible Peru)

Political career : Elected to the Congress to Perú Posible's benches in 2000. Currently he chairs the Parliamentary commission which has been investigating on former presidential advisor, Vladimiro Montesinos.

Also : Minister of Defense

Links :





(Republiek Suriname)

Regime :



HE Mr.Runaldo Ronald Venetiaan - Chief of State

Born : in Paramaribo on June 18, 1936

Education/Profession : He graduated in mathematics and physics from the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. Mr. Venetiaan worked in the Netherlands for three years before returning to Suriname, where he was a mathematics teacher, department head, and principal at three teachers' colleges between 1964 and 1973.

Party : NPS (Nieuwe Front voor Democratie / New Front for Democracy)

Political career : Other positions for Mr. Venetiaan included Minister of Education, head of the Bureau for Scientific Education and Research, research adviser at the General Statistics Bureau, and executive member of UNESCO.

(President since 12 August 2000 - 2nd time)

The president is both chief State and head of the Government.

President and vice president elected by the National Assembly or, if no presidential or vice presidential candidate receives a constitutional majority vote in the National Assembly after two votes, by the larger People's Assembly (869 representatives from the national, local, and regional councils), for five-year terms ; election last held 25 may 2000 ; (next to be held NA May 2005)


Jules Rattankoemar Ajodhia - Prime Minister

Born : in San Ignacio, Cayo District of 19 March, 1944

Education/Profession :

Party : VHP (Vooruitstrevende Hervormingspartij / Progressive Reform Party)

Political career :

(Prime Minister since 12 August 2000 - 2nd time)

Links :



(Republica Oriental del Uruguay)

Regime :


Jorge Luis Battle Ibáñez - Chief of State

Born : on October 25, 1927

Education/Profession : 1956 - Doctorate in Law and Social Sciences from the "Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de la República"

Party : PC (Partido Colorado / Red Party)

Political career : In 1958 he won hios first mandate as MP for Montevideo, to the National Assemby, beginning his first session in 1959, on the PC List 15 (batllista). Re-elected in 1962, he was among the drafters of the constitutional reform in 1966 which restored the executive power rueld by one after 14 years of a collegiate presidency ruled by the National Council of Government. During theNovember 25, 1984 elections he was elected as a senator and took office in 1985 for a five-year term. on March 1, 2000 Batlle was sworn in as President of the Republic for the forthcoming 5 years replacing Sanguinetti.

(President since 1st March 2000)

The president is both chief of State and head of the Government.

President and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms ; election last held 31 October and 28 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

Luis Hierro López - Vice-president

Born : in Montevideo on January 6, 1947

Education/Profession : Secundary studies at Zorrilla's then, admission and course in the IAVA. He completed with courses at the IPA, but didn't achieveall the subjects because he furthered his job instead.

Party : PC (Partido Colorado / Red Party)

Political career : Since 1983 a member of the Partido Colorado and a member of its Natinal executive Committee. He started his political action on List 15, with the renewal group he went with to Tarigo since the 1982 party election and was the first nominated on the List 85 in 1984 elections. Elected MP, he then was Chairman of the House of Deputies in 1989. Re-elected MP the same year, he then was elected senator since 1995. On February 2, 1998 he served as head of the Ministry of Home Affairs, for 8 months and a week. On June 3,1999, he was appointed by the National Convention of the Partido Colorado, as a candidate to Vice president.

(Vice-president since 1st March 2000)

Links :




(Republica de Venezuela)

Regime :


Hugo Rafael Chavez Frías - Chief of State

Born : on July 28, 1954, Sabaneta, State of Barinas, Venezuela

Education/Profession : B.A in Sciences and post-graduation in the Military Academy of Venezuela (Academia Militar de Venezuela) in Sciences and Military Engineering-land forces- with the rank of Sublieutenant on July 5, 1975. Chávez served as an officer of comunications in a Hunters'Batalion, Cedeño (1975-1977), tank officer in the (Armoured Division) Batallón Blindado Bravos de Apure, Maracay (1978-1979), commander of a company and head of the Department of Physical Training at the Military Academy of Venezuela (1980-1981),Head of the Culture Department (1982) and Commander of the José Antonio Páez Company (1983-1984) in the same academy, Commander of the Francisco Farfán, Elorza Cavalry Squadron (1985-1986), Commander of the Cívico-Militar Nucleus for the Arauca-Meta Frontier Development (1986-1988),Chief of the Guards of the National Council for Security and Defense in Miraflores Palace, Caracas (1988-1989) and officer por civil matters within the Hunters' Brigade, in Maturín (1990).

Party : MVR (Movimiento V República/Movement for the Fifth Republic)

Political career : In 1999, he was elected president of Venezuela.

(President since 2 February 1999)

The president is both chief of State and head of the Government.

President elected by popular vote for a five-year term ; election last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held NA December 2003)

Dr.Adina Mercedes Bastidas Castillo -Vice President

(ExecutiveVice President since 28 December 2000)

The vice president is named by the president.

Links :


Dependencies and Associated States

FALKLAND (islands)

{Falkland Islands}

(Islas Malvinas)

Queen ELIZABETH II - Chief of State

(since 6 February 1952)

Donald Lamont - Chief of the Government

Political career : Mr Donald Lamont has been appointed Governor to the Falkland Islands and Commissioner for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. His most recent post was as Chief of Staff in Sarajavo and previously Ambassador to Uruguay.

Obs : Mr Lamont has a long standing interest in the Islands, having worked in the Falkland Islands Department in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office for three years from 1982.

(Governor since 12 May 1999)

Governor appointed by the monarch.

Overseas territory of the United Kingdom. This is not recognized by Argentina, which considers the Islas Malvinas to be part of Argentine.

Links :

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